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Friday, December 2, 2022

Clean Air Zones: what you need to know

The roll-out of Ultra Low Emission Zones (ULEZs), Clean Air Zones (CAZs) and other pollution-reducing schemes in cities across the UK is accelerating in 2022 and beyond.

Following the implementation of the UK’s first ULEZ in London in April 2019, similar initiatives will be established in other major cities across England and Scotland.


The basic premise of CAZs is similar to that of congestion zones. An area is marked out within a city, usually focused on the city centre. Vehicles travelling within this zone and judged to be excessively polluting face charges, depending on the size of the vehicle.

Larger vehicles like HGVs, coaches and buses that do not meet emissions requirements (explained in more detail below) are charged around £100, although this varies between cities. Private hire cars, taxis and regular passenger vehicles that are non-compliant can expect to pay less, but still incur a charge of around £10 a day.

Like London’s already existing ULEZ, the CAZs will be distinguished by signs to make motorists aware that they are entering the zone. They will also be ring-fenced by numberplate recognition cameras. These make a note of every vehicle that passes through the zone and checks them against a database to determine the charge.

The CAZs will, mostly, be in effect 24 hours a day, seven days a week. No reprieve is granted for bank holidays.

CAZs LIVE NOW Bath | Birmingham | London | Portsmouth | Oxford

CAZs COMING SOONBradford – Spring 2022 | Manchester – 30 May 2022 | Dundee – 30 May 2022 | Edinburgh – 31 May 2022 | Aberdeen – May 2022 | Bristol – Summer 2022 | Glasgow – 1 June 2023 | Sheffield, Newcastle – expected, but date unknown


Since the goal of CAZs is to reduce emissions and improve air quality, zero-emissions vehicles have nothing to fear. However, drivers of vehicles that are not zero-emissions may be liable for charges. Two factors determine whether you will face a charge and at what level: (1) how many emissions your vehicle produces; and (2) what type is it, since, depending on the CAZ class, certain types of vehicles are exempt.

The general rule is that to travel within a CAZ without a charge, your vehicle has to be at least a Euro 4 emission standard compliant petrol model – in other words, registered after January 2006 – or, if it is a diesel, compliant with Euro 6 standards (registered after September 2015). If your vehicle meets these standards, in all probability you will not have to pay a charge.

However, even if your vehicle does fall outside of Euro 4 or 6, you may still be able to avoid a charge, depending on what kind of vehicle it is and the type of CAZ that you wish to drive through. Four types of CAZ exist, each of which targets different classes of vehicles. These are:

(1) Class A – which targets buses, coaches, taxis and private hire vehicles (PHVs).

(2) Class B – which targets buses, coaches, taxis, PHVs and heavy goods vehicles (HGVs),

(3) Class C – which targets buses, coaches, taxis, PHVs, HGVs and light goods vehicles (LGVs),

(4) Class D, the most wide-ranging – which targets buses, coaches, taxis, PHVs, HGVs LGVs and cars.

Most of the CAZs that are scheduled to be introduced in the UK are Class D. But cities such as Bath and Portsmouth will be Class C only, so in these cities, regular passenger vehicle drivers will not have to pay.

Finally, it is important to note that nearly all CAZs make special exemptions for residents within the zone, Blue Badge holders and vehicles with a disabled tax class, although the scale of the exemption offered varies between cities.


Bradford – launching Spring 2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £50

Cost per day for taxis: £7 (LGVs and minibuses £9)

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

A CAZ in Bradford’s centre and surrounding areas had been due to launch in January 2022, but plans have now been delayed until later in the Spring. HGVs, buses and coaches that are not Euro 6 compliant will be charged £50 a day to enter the zone, which will run 24/7, while LGVs and minibuses will be charged £9. Taxis and private hire vehicles will pay a middling £7 per day if they cannot meet emissions standards while regular passenger car drivers avoid fees under the current plans. Alongside the zone, Bradford City Council will also take measures to encourage taxis to change to plug-in hybrids and electric cars. An electric bus rollout is also planned, including the creation of 1000 park and ride routes.

Manchester – launching May 2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £60, vans £10 (est)

Cost per day for taxis: £7.50 (est)

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

Manchester’s CAZ will be the largest of its kind if it comes into effect in May 2022, pending government review. The zone, which is set to cover much of the Greater Manchester area, will be Class C, so as with Bath, restrictions and charges will only apply to HGVs, buses, coaches, vans, taxis and private hire vehicles. For now, regular passenger cars are exempt.

The zone will run seven days a week, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and, like other zones on this list, will be policed by automatic number plate recognition cameras. Charges will be issued according to emissions bracket and vehicle type and will be paid via a government-run site, but if currently planned rates are kept, Manchester will be one of the less penal CAZs. HGVs, buses and coaches that are non-compliant will pay £60 to use the zone, falling to £10 for vans. Passenger cars enter for free. However, taxis will have to pay £7.50. Exemptions will be available for emergency vehicles, certain historic cars and vehicles with disabled tax classes.

Dundee – launching mid-2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £60

Cost per day for taxis: Unknown 

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £60

Dundee will be the first Scottish town to receive a clean air zone in the form of a low emission zone, when plans come into effect on 30 May 2022. The zone will be positioned inside the city’s inner ring road, with access granted only to certain types of vehicles. A two-year grace period has been proposed for both residents and non-residents of the proposed LEZ zone as well as non-exempt vehicle types, meaning full enforcement will begin on 30 May 2024. 

Edinburgh – launching mid-2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £60

Cost per day for taxis: Unknown 

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £60

It is planned that Edinburgh will follow Dundee by a single day with the introduction of its own low emission zone. The proposed scheme would see all non-Euro 6 compliant diesel vehicles banned from the city centre from spring this year, along with all petrol vehicles that do not meet Euro 4 emissions standards. This will include passenger cars, as well as buses and HGVs. While the daily costs for such vehicles to use the zone have not yet been revealed, the City of Edinburgh Council, which is coordinating the zone, has said that drivers who flout the rules will be fined £60. Repeat offences, within a 90-day stretch, will cause the fine to roughly double. However, fines are not expected to start until 2024.

Aberdeen – launching mid-2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £60

Cost per day for taxis: Unknown 

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £60 

Aberdeen will be the third Scottish city to gain a clean air zone, which is expected to come into place from May 2022. A major chunk of the city centre will be covered by the zone, but the city council’s research suggests that some areas of pollution will remain even with a LEZ zone in place, unless further traffic reduction measures are introduced. The council will seek to implement changes to roads in the city centre to prioritise people walking, wheeling, cycling and using public transport.

Bristol – launching Summer 2022

Zone type: Class D

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £100

Cost per day for taxis: £9

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £9

Bristol will adopt what’s known as a Small CAZ D. This will cover a relatively small area but restricts both older, more polluting private cars and commercial vehicles. The zone, which will operate at all times, including bank holidays, will comprise a relatively small area spanning Bristol centre to Temple Quay and the immediate surroundings. Non-compliant LGVs, buses, coaches and taxis as well as non-compliant private vehicles will incur charges for entering the zone.

The charge will be set at £100 per day for larger vehicles and £9 per day for private ones. However, several exemptions to the charge will be put in place. People who already live within the CAZ will not have to pay a charge for at least a year after the zone is implemented, nor will Bristol-based Blue Badge holders or low-income drivers who have to enter the zone for work. Vehicles visiting hospitals in the zone also dodge the charge, as do vehicles with disabled tax status.

Newcastle – launching Summer 2022

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £50 (est)

Cost per day for taxis: £12.50, vans also £12.50 (est)

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

Newcastle was originally set to launch a CAZ in January 2021. However, the plan was pushed back, due to a combination of the government being “ill-prepared” (according to Newcastle Council cabinet member Arlene Ainsley) and the fallout from an ongoing legal challenge by a company that lost its bid to provide number plate recognition cameras to police the zone. Nevertheless, it is almost certain that Newcastle will gain a CAZ, although the precise date is uncertain.

Focused on the city centre, it is currently set to be Class C, skipping regular passenger cars. Assuming the January 2021 rates remain constant, which seems likely, HGVs, buses and coaches will be charged £50 to enter Newcastle’s city centre. Taxis and vans will pay £12.50.

Expected, but date unknown


Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £50 (est)

Cost per day for taxis: £10, vans and lorries also £10 (est) 

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

The prospect for Sheffield’s CAZ is less certain than Newcastle’s. Originally, a CAZ was set to be introduced towards the end of 2021, but the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on air pollution – this has fallen up to 33% from 2019 levels – has caused city councillors to reconsider. The zone, as it is currently proposed, will be Class C, overlooking regular passenger traffic but penalising polluting HGVs, coaches and taxis. It is pencilled to cover Sheffield’s inner ring road and city centre, including Park Square. Under the current proposals, fees for the zone would have been in line with those for cities such as Newcastle, with non-compliant HGVs and buses charged £50 for entry, falling to £10 for taxis, vans and lorries.

Which cities already have CAZs?

15 March 2021 – Bath

Zone type: Class C

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £100

Cost per day for taxis: £9

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

The UK’s first Clean Air Zone (CAZ) outside of London launched in Bath. Costing £23 million to implement, the scheme introduces a large Class C zone, encompassing Bath city centre, Kingsmead, Walcot, Bathwick and the Royal Victoria Park. The zone’s Class C status means that HGVs, buses, coaches and taxis are charged to enter the zone if they are judged to be polluting – ie are either pre-Euro 6 diesel vehicles or pre-Euro 4 petrol vehicles – but regular passenger cars used for private use can still drive through and within the zone normally without incurring a fee. For drivers that fall foul of the CAZ, the charge differs depending on vehicle type. HGVs, coaches and buses will incur a charge of £100 a day to enter the zone, whereas taxis will be charged only £9.

1 June 2021 – Birmingham

Zone type: Class D

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £50

Cost per day for taxis: £8

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £8

Birmingham was originally supposed to gain a CAZ in 2020, but the launch date was pushed back to summer 2021 due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The CAZ spans all roads within Birmingham’s A4540 Middleway Ring Road, exempting the ring road itself, and is a Class D zone. This means that, unlike Bath’s Class C set-up, regular passenger car drivers can incur charges for using the zone, alongside HGV, bus, coach and taxi drivers. Compared with Bath, however, the CAZ is smaller.

The charges will be lower, too. HGVs, buses and coaches will have to pay £50 a day to use the zone. For all other vehicles, the charge is reduced to £8. Vehicles with a disabled or disabled passenger tax class are permanently exempt from the CAZ, as are historic vehicles over 40 years old, motorcycles and school buses. Further, temporary exemptions are available for residents, who will be exempt for two years before they have to pay, and people on low incomes, who get a one-year exemption before paying. In contrast to other CAZs, Birmingham will not give an exemption for Blue Badge holders.

The zone is operational 24 hours a day, seven days a week, including bank holidays.

London – Live since 25 October 2021

Zone type: ULEZ

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £100

Cost per day for taxis: £12.50

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £12.50

As the UK’s largest city, London has historically been at the forefront of green innovation. It is therefore no surprise that the city has continued to tighten regulations around driving.

The new zone expanded the extant Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ), introduced in April 2019, from its current position in central London to the North Circular Road (A406) and South Circular Road (A205), excluding the circular roads themselves. Like the current ULEZ, the expanded scheme operates all of the time. Cars, vans and motorcycles that do not meet Euro 4 or Euro 6 (depending on the type of vehicle) standards will incur a charge. This will be set at £12.50 for cars, vans and bikes. Buses and coaches will need to pay £100 to use the zone, unless they fall into a disabled or disabled passenger vehicle tax class. Hybrid cars are not exempt from ULEZ fees if their engines are not Euro 4 compliant, although most modern hybrids already meet Euro 4, 5 or 6 standards, so won’t pay the ULEZ.

Portsmouth – live since 29 November 2021

Zone type: Class B

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £50

Cost per day for taxis: £10

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £0

Portsmouth’s CAZ stretches from where the M275 meets the city, down Kingston Road and Fratton Road to Gunwharf Quays and back up to the M275, encompassing Portsmouth University, the city’s main shopping centre and the harbour. Non-compliant HGVs, buses and coaches will be charged £50 to enter the zone, falling to £10 for non-compliant taxis and private hire vehicles. Vehicles with a disabled tax class and military vehicles are exempt from the charge.

Private passenger cars, vans and motorcycles are not currently charged to enter the Portsmouth CAZ, regardless of their age.

Oxford – live since 28 February 2022

Zone type: Zero emission zone (ZEZ)

Cost per day for HGVs, buses and coaches: £2, £4 or £10

Cost per day for taxis: £2, £4 or £10

Cost per day for regular passenger cars: £2, £4 or £10

Oxford technically has a Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ), which is similar to a CAZ but more versatile. First proposed in 2015, a pilot scheme for the zone encompasses a handful of streets in Oxford’s city centre, including St Michael’s Street and New Inn Hall Street. The zone is less punishing than most other CAZs. It is not, for instance, be operational 24/7, instead being active only between 7am and 7pm, although it will be in place every day. Charges will be much lower than in every other city.

Zero-emission vehicles are able to use the zone free of charge, but other vehicles will be charged between £2 and £10 a day to enter the area. Vehicles that emit less than 75g/km of CO2 will incur a £2 charge, rising to £4 in August 2025. Drivers of vehicles that use either Euro 4 petrol motors or Euro 6 diesels will be charged £4 (rising to £8). For more polluting vehicles, the charge is £10 (rising to £20). Discounts on the charges will be available to those already living within the zone, business vehicles, Blue Badge holders and vehicles with a disabled tax class.


Leeds and Liverpool were scheduled to receive CAZs. However, both cities have put plans on hold due to the coronavirus pandemic. In Leeds, this is likely to be indefinitely since air quality has been judged to be regularly below the level that would legally require a CAZ. Nottingham has also cancelled its plans for a CAZ, instead opting to reduce air pollution by refitting buses and converting council-owned vehicles to hybrid or electric powertrains. In Cambridge, discussions to introduce a CAZ are ongoing but a decision has not been reached either way.

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